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Title DETERMINATION OF SELECTED PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF AFRICAN BREADFRUIT (var. Inversa) SE
Journal International journal of Engineering And Applied Science
Publisher Faculty of Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Nigeria.
Issue 1
ISSN 1119-8109
Pages 26-39
Subject Agricultural & Bioresources Engineering
Date of Publication December 25, 2018

AUTHOR(S) Nwajinka, C.O, Okpala, D. C and Atu, I. J

ABSTRACT

Some relevant physical, mechanical and aerodynamic properties of African Breadfruit (var. Inversa) were determined in relation to processing equipment design. The measured physical properties of breadfruit seeds are the principal dimensions (length, width, and thickness), technically known as major, intermediate and minor diameters. Surface area, sphericity, projected area, aspect ratio, volume, true density, bulk density and porosity were also determined at moisture content of 11.00% wb, 13% wb, 15.00% wb, 18% wb and 20% wb. The major, intermediate and minor diameters increased from 8.10±0.91cm to 10.05±0.6cm, 4.04±0.52cm to 5.00±0.10 and 2.96±0.43 to 4.60±0.40cm respectively for the range of moisture content of 11.00 to 20.00. Within the same moisture content, the surface area, sphericity and aspect ratio were 64.19±8.90cm, to 114.25±6.20cm, 56.00±8.00cm to 60.00±6.00cm and 50.10±0.04 respectively. Other physical properties determined were volume, true density, bulk density, 1000-grain weight and porosity. The volume varied from 50.6 to 121.05 cm3, and the true density varied from 1.099 g/cm3 to 1.11 g/cm3 while bulk density, 100-grain weight and porosity varied from 0.8350 to 0.938 g/cm3, 360 g to 610g and 15.01 to 5.60 respectively. The major Aerodynamic properties studied include, terminal velocity while the frictional properties of interest were angle of repose and coefficient of friction of the seeds on popular structural materials such as plywood, mild steel and galvanized steel sheets. The result of the study showed that the angle of repose of breadfruit seeds ranged from 44.85 to 63.12 deg., while coefficient of surface friction of the seeds on wood surface ranged from 0.3855 to 0.5754 while that of mild steel and galvanized steel surfaces were from 0.4217 to 0.5837 and 0.4131 to 0.7326 to 0.7326 respectively. The terminal velocities of the seeds, kernel and chaff/hull were from 10.44 to5.94 m/s, 5.267 to 2.18 m/s and 2.387 to 0.191 m/s respectively. The same trend was observed for sphericity ( Ψ) and aspect ratio (Ra) of the breadfruit seeds. Regression equations were developed to predict the properties at different moisture content levels studied. The equation’s goodness of fit, as shown in their coefficient of determination (R2), is ranging from 0.8970 to 0.9999. The properties determined are very important factors in the design and development of cleaning and separation machine for shelled breadfruit seeds.


Keywords: physical, aerodynamics, properties, frictional, breadfruit, seeds




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